If you are reading this article it is probably because our virtual assistant REDDIE has directed you to this page. Below you will find a simple but complete guide to the reading of cadastral surveys.
As you know, the Cadastre is the inventory of real estate existing on the national territory. In Italy there are two types of Cadastre: the Cadastre of Buildings and the Land Registry (New Urban Building Cadastre – NCEU), in which all the buildings and real estate units in the area are registered.
For each property registered in the Cadastre of Buildings and in the Land Registry it is possible to request cadastral surveys, documents containing the identification data of the property itself.
There are two types of cadastral surveys:
1. ordinary survey;
2. historical view.
While the ordinary survey is comparable to a snapshot of the cadastral situation of the property at the time it is requested, the historical survey, as such, indicates all the cadastral variations that have occurred over time on the property under investigation, reconstructing its history.
For both of the above types, it is possible to carry out two search methods alternately:
a. by property;
b. by subject.
As for the search by property, it is carried out by identifying the cadastral identifier of the property itself, represented:
· by the Land Registry, from the cadastral parcel;
· by the Cadastre of Buildings, from the urban real estate unit or from its address.
As for the search by subject, however, it consists in consulting the cadastral information of a property by identifying the subject or, if more than one, the holders. In this case, it is necessary to enter the personal data of the interested party (surname, name, gender, tax code, if natural person, name and register office, if legal person).
This memorandum first describes the view by property and then that by subject, analyzing the different sections in order to be able to better read and understand.
1.a – Survey per property (ordinary)
1- The first line shows the type of survey, i.e. the search method used to obtain the document (in the example above, it is a property survey). Below, the situation of the digitized documents appears, corresponding to the date on which the survey is requested (in the example above, the survey was requested on November 9th, 2015).
2- In this section the origin of the data is indicated (Land Cadastre or Building Cadastre).
3- The head of the document contains the main information: the Municipality, with its cadastral code, the Province and the cadastral data of the property (Sheet, Particle, Subordinate and, if present, the Section).
The table below the header contains, then, the identification data of the property:
4- This column shows the number of properties covered by the inspection.
5- The Land Registry operates, for administrative reasons, through various subdivisions of the territory. We usually refer to the municipal territory and to the neighborhoods, sestieri, districts, districts etc. The Land Registry, on the other hand, knows the following territorial subdivisions: Urban Section, Administrative Section and Census Section. These, precisely because they are necessary for the internal operation of the offices, are normally not required in the survey. As for the Cadastre of Buildings, the Urban Section represents a further subdivision of the municipal territory. It is ordinarily identified by a name of up to three characters.
Always with reference only to the Cadastre of Buildings, the1 could also appear, which represents a subdivision of the territory of the Cadastral Municipality, present only in some territorial contexts. It is ordinarily identified by a letter.
As regards, instead, the Land Registry, the Census Section represents the subdivision of the territory of the Cadastral Municipality, also present only in some Municipalities. It is ordinarily identified by a letter.
6- The Sheet is, instead, a portion of the municipal territory that the Cadastre represents in its cartographic maps. The data is always mandatory.
7- The Particle, also called map or map number, represents, within the sheet, a portion of land or the building and any area of relevance and is generally marked with a number. The data is always mandatory.
With specific reference to the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia and portions of those of Udine and Belluno, territories in which the Table Cadastral System (also called Table Cadastre or Land Book System), historically introduced in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, there is further data, represented by the Denominator.
8- Subordinate: for the Cadastre of Buildings, where present, identifies the single existing real estate unit on a parcel. The urban real estate unit is the minimum inventoriable element that has income and functional autonomy. Generally, in the case of an entire building, each real estate unit is identified by its own subordinate. If the building consists of a single real estate unit, the subordinate may be absent.
For the Land Registry, where present, the data essentially refers to former rural buildings.
The following table shows the classification data:
9- The Census Zone is that homogeneous portion of the municipal territory (ordinarily it is only one for medium-small municipalities and more than one for larger cities), within which the profitability of the buildings is to be considered uniform. It may include the entire municipality or a portion thereof, with similar environmental and socio-economic characteristics. For each census area there is a specific “tariff framework”, which can be consulted at the Provincial Office – Territory of the Agency. It is often not present in the survey.
10- The Micro Zone, which is a sub-zone of the municipal area, could also be reported. Often, the data is not indicated in the survey.
11- The Category indicates the type of real estate units present in the census area, different for the intrinsic characteristics that determine its ordinary and permanent destination. It consists of a letter and a number (e.g. A/1 Stately Homes, B/4 Public Offices, C/1 Shops and Workshops, etc.). We report, below, the table of cadastral categories.
I – PROPERTIES FOR ORDINARY USE – Group A – B – C
II – SPECIAL PURPOSE PROPERTIES – Group D
III – SPECIAL PURPOSE PROPERTIES – Group E
IV – URBAN ENTITIES – Group F
12- The Class is the parameter that identifies the degree of productivity of the real estate units belonging to the categories of groups A, B and C. In other words, it indicates the level of value of the property. It is denoted by the numbers ‘1’ to ‘n’ as profitability increases. If, however, within the Municipality or the census area the profitability is homogeneous and, therefore, there is no division into classes of the category, it is indicated with the letter “U” (which stands for “unique”).
13- Consistency is the size of the real estate unit. For homes and offices (category A buildings) it is expressed in “rooms”; for shops, warehouses and remittances (category C buildings) in square metres; for buildings for collective use (hospitals, barracks, etc.) in cubic meters. For properties belonging to groups D (special purpose properties) and E (special purpose properties), on the other hand, the cadastral consistency is not indicated.
14- The Cadastral Area indicates the area in square meters for the Categories of properties surveyed in groups A, B and C (properties for ordinary use). It is divided into total area and total area with the exclusion of uncovered areas (e.g. terraces, verandas, etc.). Introduced in 2015, it coincides with the walkable surface.
15- For real estate units belonging to the categories of groups A, B and C (properties for ordinary use), the Cadastral Income is determined by multiplying the consistency by the unit tariff specific for the Municipality, census area and corresponding to the category and class. For real estate units belonging to categories D (special purpose properties) and E (specific purpose properties) the income is determined by direct estimation. The value is expressed in euros (€).
Finally, the last part of the table shows:
16- The “Data Deriving From” indicates explanatory notes relating to the generation of the data previously described and / or other information of variations to the property. The date of variation or constitution is often shown with the protocol number.
17- The address of the property is shown here (only for the Building Cadastre), i.e. the location of the property, including the house number, staircase, floor and interior of the real estate unit.
18- Any Annotations, concerning particular cases, are entered in this field.
19- The Number of holders is indicated.
20- For each owner of the property, the Personal Data of the natural person (surname, name, place and date of birth) or of the legal person (name and place of its headquarters) are indicated.
21- The Tax Code is indicated for any owner of the property, natural or legal person. When there is an asterisk “*” in correspondence to the tax code, it is certain that the data is present in the tax registry.
22- This column indicates Real Rights and Charges, i.e. securities of possession and related shares. In the event that the owner of the property is a natural person, it is possible to view the current property regime for the assets owned (owner, naked owner, grantor, surface owner and usufructuary).
There may be an additional summary section containing the Data Deriving From, with evidence of the act with the related repertoire numbers and description of the last stacking carried out.
1.b – Visura per property (historical)
In the historical survey there is a series of tables that show the various changes of ownership that have occurred over the years, namely the changes of the holders and the changes that have occurred, over time, on the cadastral data. Particular importance is played by the notes, containing all the information related to the notarial or cadastral deeds about the changes that have affected the property (they are useful especially in the field of documentary Due Diligence, as knowing the details of a given document is a starting point that simplifies the research).
In order to better understand the reading, the historical cadastral survey can be divided into three parts.
A. The first section shows all the data provided also in the ordinary survey (see above).
B. The second section, also divided into temporal sections, reports the variations that have occurred over time on the real estate unit under research, with an indication of the building interventions that originated it.
C. The third and last section, also divided into temporal sections, shows the changes of ownership of the property, with details of registration of the origin and indication of the names of the owners.
To know in detail the information contained in “sections B and C”, see the paragraph “1.a – Survey by property (ordinary)”.
2.a – Survey by subject (ordinary)
The cadastral survey by subject contains the technical and fiscal data of all the land or real estate units registered to a given subject. The search takes place within the archives of the Land Registry and the Real Estate Cadastre and is carried out by entering the personal data or the tax code of the subject, if a natural person, or the name and registration office, if a legal person.
It is necessary to define the scope of the consultation, specifying both the nature of the Land Registry (Buildings, Land or both), as well as the territory of interest (single Municipality or entire Province). Once these data have been indicated, the territorial scope can be further limited by entering the number of the Sheet (up to a maximum of three Sheets, separated by a comma) and, where required, the Land or Buildings Census Sections and any Urban Section.
1- The first line shows the type of survey, that is to say the type of research used to obtain the document (in the example above, it is a survey by subject).
Below, the situation of the digitized documents appears, corresponding to the date on which the survey is requested (in the example above, the survey was requested on October 27th, 2016).
2- In this section the origin of the data is indicated (Identified Subject).
3- The head of the document contains the main information: name and surname of the subject, the Province of reference and other more specific data (Municipality of birth, date of birth, tax code).
4- The fourth section shows all the real estate units in the name of the subject in question, with indication of the variations or other information useful to identify their origin.
The last section, finally, shows the changes of ownership of the property, with details of registration of the origin and indication of the names of the owners.
To know in detail the information contained in “section 4”, see the paragraph “1.a – Visura per immobile (ordinary)“.
2.b – Survey by subject (historical)
1- The first section shows all the data provided also in the ordinary survey (see above).
2- The second section, on the other hand, indicates all the properties that the subject has in charge and that he has owned over the years (from the date of digitization to today) including those on which he no longer has any rights.
More specifically, the rights to the properties, the cadastral identifiers (Sheet, Particle and any Subordinates), the cadastral address and the type of rights, shares and real charges are indicated.
Finally, it should be noted that this type of survey does not report some data present, however, in the ordinary surveys (Class, Cadastral Income, Consistency, Category and Surface).
We remind you that you can chat with REDDIE to solve all your doubts, even on the subject of the Cadastre.
For more information visit our website www.realestatedocumentsdata.com.
By Ing. Francesca De Angelis and Dr. Maria Eugenia Civilotti